7. Restructuring costs

In 2014, restructuring costs amounted to $192 million, as part of the Group’s Effi ciency Program announced in July 2014. Agricultural Equipment recorded $46 million primarily for the planned closure of a 60% owned joint venture in China and cost reduction activities as a result of negative demand conditions. Construction Equipment recorded $43 million restructuring costs mainly due to the realignment of the dealer networks in EMEA as a result of the re-positioning of the Case and New Holland brand offerings, and the announced closure of an assembly plant in Calhoun, Georgia, USA. Commercial Vehicles recorded $103 million mainly due to actions to reduce SG&A costs and business support costs as a result of the transition to CNH Industrial’s regional structure, and costs related to the completion of manufacturing product specialization programs. For 2013, restructuring costs were $54 million, mainly related to Commercial Vehicles as a consequence of the actions initiated in 2012 to rationalize the heavy truck and fi refi ghting businesses.