4. Research and development costs

In 2014, Research and development costs of $878 million ($797 million in 2013) comprise all the research and development costs not recognized as assets in the year, amounting to $446 million ($481 million in 2013), the depreciation of capitalized development costs of $12 million (zero million in 2013) and the amortization of capitalized development costs of $420 million ($316 million in 2013). During 2014, the Group incurred new expenditure for capitalized development costs of $676 million ($759 million in 2013).