3. Selling, general and administrative costs

Selling costs amount to $1,284 million in 2014 ($1,372 million in 2013) and comprise mainly marketing, advertising and sales personnel costs.

General and administrative costs amount to $1,469 million in 2014 ($1,589 million in 2013) and comprise mainly expenses for administration which are not attributable to sales, production and research and development functions.

Selling, general and administrative costs decreased $208 million compared to 2013 mainly due to cost containment actions at Commercial Vehicles and Construction Equipment.